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英语with的用法


一、 with结构的构成
With结构构成方式如下:
1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;
2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;
3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;
4. with或without-名词/代词+动词不定式;
5. with或without-名词/代词+分词。
二、with结构的用法
With结构在句中可以作定语。
1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.
2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few patches of land sticking out above the water.
3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.
with结构多数充当状语,表示行为方式,伴随情况、时间、原因或条件。
1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.
(with+名词+形容词,作伴随状语)
2、 With the meal over , we all went home.
(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)
3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。
(with+名词+介词短语,作伴随状语。) 
The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.
4、He lay in the dark empty house, with not a man ,woman or child to say he was kind to me.
(with+名词+不定式,作伴随状语) 
He could not finish it without me to help him.
(without+代词 +不定式,作条件状语)
5、She fell asleep with the light burning.
(with+名词+现在分词 ,作伴随状语)
6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something to eat.
(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语)

三、 with结构的特点
1. with结构由介词with或without+复合结构构成。复合结构中第一部分与第二部分语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却具有主谓关系,也就是说,可以用第一部分作主语,第二部分作谓语,构成一个句子。
 With him taken care of, we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)
→(He was taken good care of.) 
She fell asleep with the light burning. 
→(The light was burning.) 
With her hair gone, there could be no use for them. 
→(Her hair was gone.)
2. 在with结构中,第一部分为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。
例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.
四、 说明:
1. with结构作状语时, 不定式/现在分词/过去分词的区别:
不定式表示将要发生的动作,
现在分词表示正在发生或发生了的动作,
过去分词表示被动或完成.
With the boy leading the way, we found he house easily.
(小男孩已领过路)
With the boy to lead the way, we will find the house easily tomorrow.
(小男孩明天将领路)
He lay on the bed with the bedroom door shut.
(寝室被关着)
2. with结构与独立主格结构的区别
with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、所有格代词或其它词类所修饰,结构较松散;
而独立主格结构没有with或without引导,结构严密,名词前可用可不用修饰语。
在句法功能上,with结构可以作定语,独立主格结构则不能;独立主格结构通常在句中作状语,但也可以作主语,而with结构则不能。
独立主格在口语中不常用,往往由一个从句代替,而with结构较口语化,较常用。
例如:
There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.
("with+复合宾语"结构,在句中作定语)
A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.
(名词+现在分词构成的独立主格结构,作主语)
The boy said, turning to the man, his eyes opened wide and his hand raised.
(独立主格结构,表示伴随状况或行为方式,作状语)
Then last night, I followed him here, and climbed in, sword in hand.
(名词+介词短语构成的独立主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情况)。